From the beginning to 13th century

 

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Soundjata Keita, son of Sogolon Konde and Nare Famanghan Kon Fatta Konate, the conqueror who unified Mande empire.

© Sylvie Berté Pastel - 2002

 
 

Dates

Events, empires, sovereigns

Testimonies

End of III° century

 

dot Rise of Wagadou empire («the land of herds», in soninke tongue) called «Ohana» («wealth» in Arabic) or Ghana (Mandenka word for « ñana », i.e. : hero).

 

dot Rise of the «Wague» dynasty, then the «Cisse».

 

dot Mythical foundations of Gao and Djenne (Djenne-Djenno).

 

The astronomer Al Fazari quotes «the territory of Ghana, the land of gold».

 

dot Myth of genius pytho «Bida» told in the epic folksong Miniyamba.

VII°

 

dot Diabe Cisse, a Soninke prince becomes the sovereign of Wagadou empire, unificates it and extends it from Tekrour (west) to Diafounou (to the east at Djenne).

 

dot Capitale of the Wagadou empire at Koumbi-Saleh. Diabe «Cissé» takes the honorific patronym of «Tounka» (Tounkara), i.e. : absolute sovereign.

 

«Tunkara Fassa» (panegyric devoted to the Tunka kings)

IX° - X°

dot Apogee of Wagadou.

 

dot Conquest of Aoudaghost (Awdaghast, Taghaost, Taghaoust), great Berber city, in 990 by the «Tounka» (king) of Ghana.

dot Al Ya' Kubi, «Kitab-al-Buldān» (Book of the Countries, 872) describes Gao's realm.

 

dot Megaliths of Tondidarou

X°- XI°

 

dot Baraman(d)a, first king (according to the legend) of Mali near the 1050's.

 

dot Apogee of the Empire of Ghana.

 

dot Beginning of islamization of the Black people in West Africa under the influence of the men of the ribât and the theologian leader, Abdallah Ibn Yasin, known as «Al-Murâbitîn» («The Almoravid»).

 

dot Intervention of the Almoravids in Ghana in 1054.

 

dot Foundation of Timbuktu.

 

Abu Obeid Al Bakri, «The Book of the Highways and of the Kingdoms » (1068)

near 1040

 

dot Wardjabi, king of Tekrur converts a part of his Toucouleurs subjects and people to Islam.

 

Abu Obeid Al Bakri, op.cit (1068)

1068

 

dot Kingdoms of Gao, (Songhaï), of Do and Malel (Mali?).

 

Al Muhlahabi

1076

 

dot Foundation of a city-state by the Soso dynasty of Diarasso in the north of Beledougou, between Koumbi Saleh and Bamako.

 

dot Conquest of Ghana by the Almoravides. Collapse of Koumbi Saleh.

 

dot Rise of Kaniaga, the country of Soninke .

 

1154-1161

 

dot Hamama, first sovereign (attested) of Mali.

 

dot Massive slave trading by Ghana in Mandinka countries.

 

dot Rise of «Mali» (Manding), vassal province of the kingdom of Sosso.

 

dot Mamady Kani [Konate] called Kanimany (Kanimane), legendary king of the Manding extend the kingdom to the Boure and hand it over to his sons hunters, Kani Simbo, Kaninyongo Simbo, Kabala Simbo and Bamari Simbo.

 

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1200-1235

 

dot Hegemony of the realm of Sosso (or Kaniaga) under the authority of Diarra Kante (Dâbi Kemogo) then of his son Soumaworo Kante.

 

1203

 

dot Annexation of Ghana, of countries of high-Senegal and Kingui (or Diara) by Soumaworo Kante.

 

dot Foundation of Oualata by rich Moslem people of Ghana, who ran away from the domination of Sosso.

 

1200 - 1218

 

dot In Mali, reign of Moussa Bala Djigui Doumbia of Karatabugu known as «Allakoi Moussa», small son of Hamama. Moslem king very pious, he makes pilgrimage at Mecca and converts his subjects to Islam.

 

dot In Dakadyalan (Manding), reign of Nare Famanghan Kon Fatta known as «Frako Maghan Keigu» or «Keñi» («the Beautiful»). He receives the clanic patronym of «Konate» (« Nobody said no [to him] »).

 

1218 - 1228

 

dot In Manding, Dankaran Touman inherits the throne of Nare Famanghan Kon Fatta.

 

dot Births of SundjataSundiata faasa is the most famous song of the Manding tradition. This song is also known under the title of The Anthem of the Bow or Simbo... Read more and Tiramaghan, his cousin.

 

1230 - 1235

 

dot Soumaworo Kante devastates Ghana, plunders Diakha and Mali. Famous battles : Koukouba(ni), Bantamba, Niani-Niani (Nianiba) and Kambasiga.

 

dot Collapse of the Empire of Ghana.

 

dot Dankaran Touman escaping into Kissidougou ( «the city of safety»).

 

dot Exile of SundjataSundiata faasa is the most famous song of the Manding tradition. This song is also known under the title of The Anthem of the Bow or Simbo... Read more at Mema (hosted by king Faran Mema Tunkara).

 

«Soumaworo Fassa» (Panegyric of Soumaworo)

 

«Tunkara Fassa» (devoted to the Tunka kings) renewed.

1235 - 1255

SundjataSundiata faasa is the most famous song of the Manding tradition. This song is also known under the title of The Anthem of the Bow or Simbo... Read more, sovereign of the empire of Manden.

Balla Fasseke Kouyate, «The Anthem of the Bow»

1235

 

dot FakoliLegends tell that «Janjon» was (nick?) name of a sorcerer chaman like with great surnatural powers in the very early times of the Manding... Read more. Kourouma, nephew and war Commander of Soumaworo, rejoins the Mandinka coalition under SundjataSundiata faasa is the most famous song of the Manding tradition. This song is also known under the title of The Anthem of the Bow or Simbo... Read more's command.

 

dot Battles of Nârena and Kirina : victories of Soundjata, with the help of Fakoli, Nankoman Djan and Tiramanghan against Soumaworo.

 

«JanjonLegends tell that «Janjon» was (nick?) name of a sorcerer chaman like with great surnatural powers in the very early times of the Manding... Read more.», praise song for the brave knights, devoted to Fakoli.

 

 

1235-1240

dot Conquest of Djolof in Serere area by Tiramanghan, warchief of Soundjata, in consequence of Djolofin Mansa's insult (robbery of Sundjata's horses).

 

dot Conquest and annexation of Ghana by Soundjata.

 

«Tira Makhan faasa», epic praising song devoted to the warchief Tira Manghan Tarawélé.

 

1240-1255

dot Hierarchisation of the Manden clans and aristocracy :

 

 

- 5 lineages «massalen» (noblemen) hailing from Mamourou

 

 

- 5 clans of marabouts called in honor «Manden mori » : Cissé, Touré, Djané, Bérété, Co(u)mba.

 
 

- 5 clans of caste (ñàmàkálálu) : blacksmiths, leather workers, craftsmen, intercessors trained in the Qur'an, and griots.

   
 

- 4 lineages of intercessors

 

 

dot Soundjata receives the patronymic name of «Kei(y)ta».

 

dot Soundjata claims that «Islam is now the official religion of Manding».

 

dot Unification and division of the provinces between the confederated clans : Keita, Konate, Konte and Camara are still exclusive owners of the main part of the Manding's lands.

 

dot Death of SundjataSundiata faasa is the most famous song of the Manding tradition. This song is also known under the title of The Anthem of the Bow or Simbo... Read more (unknown circumstances).

 

Soundiata's genealogy.

 

dot Balla Fasseke Kouyate, «Sundjata Faassa»

 

dot Creation and redaction (?) of «Kurukanfugan's Chart»

 
 
 
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